1. 11th June 02:58
  1. Blame.

Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England



one that precedes

especially a person who has previously occupied a position or office to which another has succeeded, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/predecessor

Predecessor; A holy person announcing the approaching appearance of a prophet, see precursor, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predecessor

predecessor; someone who had a job or a position before someone else, or something that comes before another thing in time or in a series:, https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/predecessor#google_vignette

Predecessor, Edward I, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I

William the Conqueror[a] (c. 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror

William II (Anglo-NormanWilliame; c. 1057 – 2 August 1100), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_II_of_England

Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England

Stephen (1092 or 1096 – 25 October 1154), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen,_King_of_England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England

Edward I[a] (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England

Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

Henry IV (c. April 1367 – 20 March 1413), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England

Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV

Edward V (2 November 1470 – c. mid-1483), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_V

Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

Henry VII (28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England

Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VI

William the Conqueror, Predecessor, Edgar Ætheling (uncrowned), Harold II (crowned), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_%C3%86theling, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Godwinson, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror

William II of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_II_of_England#/media/File:William_II_of_England.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_II_of_England

William II (Anglo-NormanWilliame; c. 1057 – 2 August 1100) was King of England from 26 September 1087 until his death in 1100, with powers over Normandy and influence in Scotland. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. The third son of William the Conqueror, he is commonly referred to as William Rufus (Rufus being Latin for “the Red”), perhaps because of his ruddy appearance or, more likely, due to having red hair.[2][a]

William was a figure of complex temperament, capable of both bellicosity and flamboyance. He did not marry nor have children, which – along with contemporary accounts – has led some historians to speculate on homosexuality or bisexuality.[4] He died after being hit by an arrow while hunting. Circumstantial evidence in the behaviour of those around him – including his younger brother Henry I – raises strong, but unproven, suspicions of murder.[5][6] Henry I hurriedly succeeded him as king.

Historian Frank Barlow observed William was “[a] rumbustious, devil-may-care soldier, without natural dignity or social graces, with no cultivated tastes and little show of conventional religious piety or morality – indeed, according to his critics, addicted to every kind of vice, particularly lust and especially sodomy.” On the other hand, he was a wise ruler and victorious general. Barlow noted, “His chivalrous virtues and achievements were all too obvious. He had maintained good order and satisfactory justice in England and restored good peace to Normandy. He had extended Anglo-Norman rule in Wales, brought Scotland firmly under his lordship, recovered Maine, and kept up the pressure on the Vexin.”[7]


Henry I of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England#/media/File:Henry1.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England

Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. He was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William’s death in 1087, Henry’s elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. He purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but his brothers deposed him in 1091. He gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William Rufus against Robert.

Present in England with his brother William, who died in a hunting accident, Henry seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William’s less popular policies. He married Matilda of Scotland and they had two surviving children, Empress Matilda and William Adelin; he also had many illegitimate children by his numerous mistresses. Robert, who invaded from Normandy in 1101, disputed Henry’s control of England; this military campaign ended in a negotiated settlement that confirmed Henry as king. The peace was short-lived, and Henry invaded the Duchy of Normandy in 1105 and 1106, finally defeating Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry kept Robert imprisoned for the rest of his life. Henry’s control of Normandy was challenged by Louis VI of FranceBaldwin VII of Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou, who promoted the rival claims of Robert’s son, William Clito, and supported a major rebellion in the Duchy between 1116 and 1119. Following Henry’s victory at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was agreed with Louis in 1120.

Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy. In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but also strengthened it with more institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices. Normandy was also governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer. Many of the officials who ran Henry’s system were “new men” of obscure backgrounds, rather than from families of high status, who rose through the ranks as administrators. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a serious dispute in 1101 with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, which was resolved through a compromise solution in 1105. He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy.

Henry’s son William drowned in the White Ship disaster of 1120, throwing the royal succession into doubt. Henry took a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, in the hope of having another son, but their marriage was childless. In response to this, he declared his daughter Matilda his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou. The relationship between Henry and the couple became strained, and fighting broke out along the border with Anjou. Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.


Henry II of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England#/media/File:HenryIIGospels.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Fitzempress and Henry Curtmantle,[2] was King of England from 1154 until his death in 1189. During his reign he controlled England, substantial parts of Wales and Ireland, and much of France (including NormandyAnjou, and Aquitaine), an area that altogether was later called the Angevin Empire, and also held power over Scotland and the Duchy of Brittany.

Henry became politically and militarily involved by the age of fourteen in the efforts of his mother, Matilda (daughter of Henry I of England), to claim the English throne, at that time held by Matilda’s cousin Stephen of Blois. Henry’s father, Geoffrey, made him Duke of Normandy in 1150, and upon Geoffrey’s death in 1151, Henry inherited Anjou, Maine and Touraine. His marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine brought him control of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Thus, he controlled most of France. Henry’s military expedition to England in 1153 resulted in King Stephen agreeing, by the Treaty of Wallingford, to leave England to Henry, and he inherited the kingdom at Stephen’s death a year later. Henry was an energetic and ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the royal lands and prerogatives of his grandfather Henry I. During the early years of his reign Henry restored the royal administration in England, which had almost collapsed during Stephen’s reign, and re-established hegemony over Wales. Henry’s desire to control the English Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of CanterburyThis controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket’s murder in 1170. Soon after his accession Henry came into conflict with Louis VII of France, his feudal overlord, and the two rulers fought, over several decades, what has been termed a “cold war“. Henry expanded his empire at Louis’ expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties, no lasting agreement was reached.

Henry and Eleanor had eight children. Three of their sons would rule as king, though Henry the Young King was named his father’s nominal co-ruler rather than sole monarch. As his sons grew up, Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy their desires for land and immediate power, and tensions rose over the future inheritance of the empire, encouraged by Louis VII and his son Philip II, who ascended to the French throne in 1180. In 1173 Henry’s heir apparent, “Young Henry”, rebelled against his father; he was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey and by their mother. Several European states allied themselves with the rebels, and the Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry’s vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them “new men” appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey led another revolt in 1183, during which Young Henry died of dysentery. Geoffrey died in 1186. The Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for Henry’s youngest son, John. By 1189, Philip swayed Richard to his side, leading to a final rebellion. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon Castle in Anjou. He died soon afterwards and was succeeded by his son Richard I.

Henry’s empire quickly collapsed during the reign of his son John (who succeeded Richard in 1199), but many of the changes Henry introduced during his lengthy rule had long-term consequences. Henry’s legal changes are generally considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland shaped the development of their societies, histories, and governmental systems. Historical interpretations of Henry’s reign have changed considerably over time. Contemporary chroniclers such as Gerald of Wales and William of Newburgh, though sometimes unfavourable, generally lauded his achievements. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and, ultimately, a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry’s own empire, but they also criticised certain aspects of his private life and treatment of Becket.


Richard I of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England#/media/File:Church_of_Fontevraud_Abbey_Richard_I_effigy.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199), known as Richard Cœur de Lion (Norman FrenchQuor de Lion)[1][2] or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior,[3][4][5] was King of England from 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of NormandyAquitaine, and Gascony; Lord of CyprusCount of PoitiersAnjouMaine, and Nantes; and was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and was therefore not expected to become king, but his two elder brothers predeceased their father.

By the age of 16, Richard had taken command of his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father.[3] Richard was an important Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and achieving several victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin, although he finalised a peace treaty and ended the campaign without retaking Jerusalem.[6]

Richard probably spoke both French and Occitan.[7] He was born in England, where he spent his childhood; before becoming king, however, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine, in the southwest of France. Following his accession, he spent very little time, perhaps as little as six months, in England. Most of his reign was spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he has been perceived as preferring to use it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies.[8] Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects.[9] He remains one of the few kings of England remembered more commonly by his epithet than his regnal number,[citation needed] and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France.[10]


John, King of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England#/media/File:Jan_tomb.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was the king of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John’s reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

John was the youngest son of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was nicknamed John Lackland (NormanJean sans Terrelit.‘John without land’)[1] because he was not expected to inherit significant lands.[2] He became Henry’s favourite child following the failed revolt of 1173–1174 by his brothers Henry the Young KingRichard, and Geoffrey against the King. John was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. He unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against the royal administrators of his brother, King Richard, while Richard was participating in the Third Crusade, but he was proclaimed king after Richard died in 1199. He came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John’s possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200.

When war with France broke out again in 1202, John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of NormanBreton, and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in 1204. He spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. His judicial reforms had a lasting effect on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John’s excommunication in 1209, a dispute he finally settled in 1213. John’s attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed because of the French victory over John’s allies at the Battle of Bouvines. When he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England’s most powerful nobles. Magna Carta was drafted as a peace treaty between John and the barons, and agreed in 1215. However, neither side complied with its conditions and civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis VIII of France. It soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted while on campaign in eastern England during late 1216; supporters of his son Henry III went on to achieve victory over Louis and the rebel barons the following year.

Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John’s performance as king, and his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards. Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John’s positive qualities, observing that John is today usually considered a “hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general”.[3] Nonetheless, modern historians agree that he also had many faults as king, including what historian Ralph Turner describes as “distasteful, even dangerous personality traits”, such as pettiness, spitefulness, and cruelty.[4] These negative qualities provided extensive material for fiction writers in the Victorian era, and John remains a recurring character within Western popular culture, primarily as a villain in Robin Hood folklore.


Henry III of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England#/media/File:HenryIII.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_England

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of EnglandLord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272.[1] The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons’ War. Cardinal Guala Bicchieri declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry’s forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by Great Charter of 1225, a later version of the 1215 Magna Carta, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal’s son Richard broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church.

Following the revolt, Henry ruled England personally, rather than governing through senior ministers. He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing heavily in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with whom he had five children. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities; the King was particularly devoted to the figure of Edward the Confessor, whom he adopted as his patron saint. He extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England, ultimately crippling their ability to do business, and as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family’s lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry supported his brother Richard of Cornwall in his successful bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund Crouchback on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money. He planned to go on crusade to the Levant but was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony.

By 1258, Henry’s rule was increasingly unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts. A coalition of his barons, initially probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d’état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony. The baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued.

In 1263, one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons’ War. Henry persuaded Louis to support his cause and mobilised an army. The Battle of Lewes was fought in 1264 when Henry was defeated and taken prisoner. Henry’s eldest son, Edward, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father. Henry initially exacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth. Reconstruction was slow, and Henry had to acquiesce to several measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, leaving Edward as his successor. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, and was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death, but he was not canonised. Henry’s reign of 56 years was the longest in medieval English history, and would not be surpassed by an English, or later British, monarch until that of George III in the 18th and 19th centuries.


Edward I of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England#/media/File:Edward_I_-_Westminster_Abbey_Sedilia.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

Edward I[a] (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Concurrently, he was Lord of Ireland, and from 1254 to 1306 he ruled Gascony as Duke of Aquitaine in his capacity as a vassal of the French king. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as the Lord Edward. The eldest son of Henry III, Edward was involved from an early age in the political intrigues of his father’s reign. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons’ War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was held hostage by the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and defeated the baronial leader Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Within two years, the rebellion was extinguished and, with England pacified, Edward left to join the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1270. He was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed of his father’s death. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey.

Edward spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, he investigated the tenure of several feudal liberties. The law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law, but the King’s attention was increasingly drawn towards military affairs. After suppressing a minor conflict in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second one in 1282–83 by conquering Wales. He then established English rule, built castles and towns in the countryside and settled them with English people. After the death of the heir to the Scottish throne, Edward was invited to arbitrate a succession dispute. He claimed feudal suzerainty over Scotland and invaded the country, and the ensuing First Scottish War of Independence continued after his death. Simultaneously, Edward found himself at war with France (a Scottish ally) after King Philip IV confiscated the Duchy of Gascony. The duchy was eventually recovered but the conflict relieved English military pressure against Scotland. By the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation and this met with both lay and ecclesiastical opposition in England. In Ireland, he had extracted soldiers, supplies and money, leaving decay, lawlessness and a revival of the fortunes of his enemies in Gaelic territories. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son Edward II a war with Scotland and other financial and political burdens.

Edward’s temperamental nature and height (6’2″, 188cm) made him an intimidating figure. He often instilled fear in his contemporaries, although he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship as a soldier, an administrator, and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided in their assessment of Edward; some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, but others have criticised his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility. Edward is credited with many accomplishments, including restoring royal authority after the reign of Henry III and establishing Parliament as a permanent institution, which allowed for a functional system for raising taxes and reforming the law through statutes. At the same time, he is also often condemned for vindictiveness, opportunism and untrustworthiness in his dealings with Wales and Scotland, coupled with a colonialist approach to their governance and to Ireland, and for antisemitic policies leading to the expulsion of the Jews from England in 1290.


Edward II of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England#/media/File:Edward_II_-_detail_of_tomb.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_II_of_England

Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also known as Edward of Caernarfon or Caernarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the throne following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns in Scotland, and in 1306 he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Edward succeeded to the throne the next year, following his father’s death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV of France, as part of a long-running effort to resolve the tensions between the English and French crowns.

Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of Edward and Gaveston’s relationship is uncertain; they may have been friends, lovers, or sworn brothers. Gaveston’s arrogance and power as Edward’s favourite provoked discontent both among the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston’s return, the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward’s cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the King’s reign mounted.

The Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but in 1321 Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers’ lands and forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign, capturing and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Isabella allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward’s regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, where he was captured in November. Edward was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his son, Edward III, and he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September, probably murdered on the orders of the new regime.

Edward’s relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe‘s 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films, novels and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward’s contemporaries criticised his performance as a king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his later years, although 19th century academics have argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant and ultimately unsuccessful ruler.


Edward III of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England#/media/File:Edward_III_of_England_(Order_of_the_Garter).jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England

Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His fifty-year reign is one of the longest in English history, and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English Parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death. He outlived his eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, and was succeeded by his grandson, Richard II.

Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover, Roger Mortimer. At the age of seventeen, he led a successful coup d’état against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland, he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne,[a] starting the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453). Following some initial setbacks, this first phase of the war went exceptionally well for England and would become known as the Edwardian War. Victories at Crécy and Poitiers, in 1356, led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny, in which England made territorial gains, and Edward renounced his claim to the French throne. Edward’s later years were marked by foreign policy failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his increasing inactivity and poor health.

Edward was temperamental and thought himself capable of feats such as healing by the royal touch, as some prior English kings did. He was also capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional Medieval king whose main interest was warfare, but he also had a broad range of non-military interests. Admired in his own time, and for centuries after, he was later denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by Whig historians, but modern historians credit him with significant achievements.


Richard II of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England#/media/File:The_Westminster_Portrait_of_Richard_II_of_England_(1390s).jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. He was the son of Edward, Prince of Wales (later known as the Black Prince), and Joan, Countess of Kent. Richard’s father died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to his grandfather, King Edward III; upon the latter’s death, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.

During Richard’s first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of regency councils, influenced by Richard’s uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of WoodstockEngland at that time faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years’ War. A major challenge of the reign was the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381, and the young king played a central part in the successful suppression of this crisis. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years’ War. A firm believer in the royal prerogative, Richard restrained the power of the aristocracy and relied on a private retinue for military protection instead. In contrast to his grandfather, Richard cultivated a refined atmosphere centred on art and culture at court, in which the king was an elevated figure.

The King’s dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent among the nobility, and in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. In 1397, he took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard’s “tyranny”. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the King disinherited Gaunt’s son, Henry Bolingbroke, who had previously been exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, he deposed Richard and had himself crowned king. Richard is thought to have been starved to death in captivity, although questions remain regarding his final fate.

Richard’s posthumous reputation has been shaped to a large extent by William Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard’s misrule and his deposition as responsible for the 15th-century Wars of the Roses. Modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While probably not insane, as many historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed him to be, he may have had a personality disorder, particularly manifesting itself towards the end of his reign. Most authorities agree that his policies were not unrealistic or even entirely unprecedented, but that the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, leading to his downfall.


Henry IV of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England#/media/File:Illumination_of_Henry_IV_(cropped).jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_England

Henry IV (c. April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England from 1399 to 1413. Henry was the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, himself the son of Edward III.[2]

Henry was involved in the 1388 revolt of Lords Appellant against Richard II, his first cousin, but he was not punished. However, he was exiled from court in 1398. After his father, John of Gaunt, died in 1399, Richard blocked Henry’s inheritance of his father’s duchy. That year, Henry rallied a group of supporters, overthrew and imprisoned Richard II, and usurped the throne; these actions later contributed to dynastic disputes in the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487).

As king, Henry faced a number of rebellions, most seriously those of Owain Glyndŵr, the last Welsh Prince of Wales, and the English knight Henry Percy (Hotspur), who was killed in the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403. Henry IV had six children from his first marriage to Mary de Bohun, while his second marriage to Joan of Navarre was childless. Henry and Mary’s eldest son, Henry of Monmouth, assumed the reins of government in 1410 as the king’s health worsened. Henry IV died in 1413, and his son succeeded him as Henry V.

Unlike his forebears, Henry was the first English ruler whose mother tongue was English (rather than French) since the Norman Conquest, over three hundred years before.[4]


Henry V of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England#/media/File:Henry_V_Miniature.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England

Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry’s outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years’ War against France made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in Shakespeare‘s “Henriad” plays, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the greatest warrior-kings of medieval England.

During the reign of his father, Henry IV, the young Prince Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, and against the powerful Percy family of Northumberland, playing a central part at the Battle of Shrewsbury, despite being just sixteen years of age. As he entered adulthood, Henry played an increasingly central role in England’s government, due to the declining health of his father, but disagreements between king and heir led to political conflict between the two. After his father’s death in March 1413, Henry ascended to the throne of England and assumed complete control of the country, also reviving the historic English claim to the French throne.

In 1415, Henry followed in the wake of his great-grandfather, Edward III, by renewing the Hundred Years’ War with France, beginning the Lancastrian phase of the conflict (1415–1453). His first military campaign included capturing the port of Harfleur and a famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt, which inspired a proto-nationalistic fervour in England. During his second campaign (1417–20), his armies captured Paris and conquered most of northern France, including the formerly English-held Duchy of Normandy. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, Henry put unparalleled pressure on King Charles VI of France (“the Mad”), resulting in the largest holding of French territory by an English king since the Angevin Empire. The Treaty of Troyes (1420) recognised Henry V as regent of France and heir apparent to the French throne, disinheriting Charles’s own son, the Dauphin Charles.[1] Henry was subsequently married to Charles VI’s daughter, Catherine of Valois. The treaty ratified the unprecedented formation of a union between the kingdoms of England and Francein the person of Henry, upon the death of the ailing Charles. However, Henry died in August 1422, less than two months before his father-in-law, and was succeeded by his only son and heir, the infant Henry VI.

Analyses of Henry’s reign are varied. According to Charles Ross, he was widely praised for his personal piety, bravery, and military genius; Henry was admired even by contemporary French chroniclers. However, his occasionally cruel temperament and lack of focus regarding domestic affairs have made him the subject of criticism. Nonetheless, Adrian Hastings believes his militaristic pursuits during the Hundred Years’ War fostered a strong sense of English nationalism and set the stage for the rise of England (later Britain) to prominence as a dominant global power.


Henry VI of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England#/media/File:Henry_VI_of_England,_Shrewsbury_book.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471,[1] and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne upon his father’s death, at the age of eight months; and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather, Charles VI, shortly afterwards.

Henry was born during the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453), at the beginning of its third phase, in which his uncle, Charles VII, contested the Lancastrian claim to the French throne, which had been ratified in the Treaty of Troyes (1420). He is the only English monarch to have been crowned King of France, with his coronation in 1431 taking place in Notre-Dame de Paris. His early reign, when England was ruled by a regency government, saw the pinnacle of English power in France. However, subsequent military, diplomatic and economic problems damaged the English cause by the time Henry was declared mature enough to rule in 1437. The young king faced military setbacks in France, and political and financial crises in England, where divisions among the nobility in his government began to widen.

In contrast to his father, Henry VI is described as timid, shy, passive, benevolent and averse to warfare and violence; after 1453, he became mentally unstable. His ineffective reign saw the near total loss of English lands in France. In 1445 – partially in the hope of achieving peace – Henry married Charles VII’s niece, the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of AnjouThe peace policy failed and war recommenced, with France rapidly recovering much of the territory held by the English, including their ancestral lands in Aquitaine and the conquered Normandy. By 1453, Calais was the only English-governed territory on the continent. Henry’s domestic popularity declined in the 1440s, partly due to the revelation that a large, strategically important territory (the county of Maine) had been secretly returned to the French. Political unrest in England grew rapidly as a result; the lynching of Henry’s key adviser, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, provoked a major rebellion in 1450. Factions and favourites encouraged the rise of further disorder in the country: regional magnates maintained increasing numbers of private armed retainers, including soldiers returning from France, with whom they fought regional conflicts (e.g., the Percy-Neville feud), terrorised their neighbours, paralysed the courts, and dominated the government.[2]

Starting in 1453, Henry had a series of mental breakdowns, making him unable to rule. Power was duly exercised by quarrelsome nobles, headed by the leaders of cadet branches of the royal familyRichard, 3rd Duke of York and Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset developed a fierce political rivalry and jostled for power in Henry’s government. Queen Margaret did not remain politically neutral and took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Amid military disasters in France, and a collapse of law and order in England, the Queen and her clique came under accusations – particularly from Henry VI’s increasingly popular cousin, the Duke of York – of misconduct of the war in France and misrule of England. Tensions mounted between Margaret and York over control of the incapacitated King’s government, which developed into a major dispute over the succession to the English throne. Civil war broke out in 1455, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict now known as the Wars of the Roses (1455–1487).

Henry was deposed on 4 March 1461 by York’s eldest son, who took the throne as King Edward IV. Despite Margaret continuing to lead a resistance to Edward, Henry was captured by Edward’s forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of LondonHenry was restored to the throne by the Earl of Warwick in 1470; Edward retook power in 1471 and killed Henry’s only son, Edward of Westminster, at the Battle of Tewkesbury; Henry was imprisoned once again. Having “lost his wits, his two kingdoms and his only son”,[3] Henry died in the Tower during the night of 21 May 1471, possibly killed on the orders of King Edward. He was buried at Chertsey Abbey before being moved to Windsor Castle in 1484. Miracles were attributed to Henry after his death and he was informally regarded as a saint and martyr until the 16th century. He left a legacy of educational institutions, having founded Eton CollegeKing’s College, Cambridge and (together with Henry ChicheleAll Souls College, OxfordShakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about his life, depicting him as weak-willed and easily influenced by his wife, Margaret.


Edward IV


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV#/media/File:King_Edward_IV.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_IV

Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470,[1][2] then again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was a central figure in the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars in England fought between the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions between 1455 and 1487.

Edward inherited the Yorkist claim to the throne at the age of eighteen when his father, Richard, Duke of York, was killed at the Battle of Wakefield in December 1460. After defeating Lancastrian armies at Mortimer’s Cross and Towton in early 1461, he deposed King Henry VI and took the throne. His marriage to Elizabeth Woodville in 1464 led to conflict with his chief advisor, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, known as the “Kingmaker”. In 1470, a revolt led by Warwick and Edward’s brother George, Duke of Clarence, briefly re-installed Henry VI. Edward fled to Flanders, where he gathered support and invaded England in March 1471; after victories at the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury (where both the Earl of Warwick and Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, were killed), he resumed the throne. Shortly afterwards, Henry VI was found dead in the Tower of London, possibly killed on Edward’s orders.

Despite facing an overseas threat from Henry Tudor, the last remaining Lancastrian claimant, Edward reigned in relative peace for the next twelve years. Edward nearly restarted the Hundred Years War, following his invasion of France in 1475, but he was assuaged by Louis XI in the Treaty of Picquigny. This treaty formally ended the Hundred Years War, which had been effectively over since 1453. Following his sudden death in April 1483, Edward was briefly succeeded by his son Edward V; his younger brother, Richard, was appointed Lord Protector of England, due to the new king’s minority, but he quickly seized the throne as Richard III.


Edward V


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_V#/media/File:King-edward-v.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_V

Edward V (2 November 1470 – c. mid-1483)[1][2] was King of England from 9 April to 25 June 1483. He succeeded his father, Edward IV, upon the latter’s death. Edward V was never crowned, and his brief reign was dominated by the influence of his uncle and Lord Protector, the Duke of Gloucester, who deposed him to reign as King Richard III; this was confirmed by the Titulus Regius, an Act of Parliament which denounced any further claims through Edward IV’s heirs by delegitimising Edward V and all of his siblings. This was later repealed by Henry VII, who wished to legitimise his reign by marrying Elizabeth of York, Edward V’s eldest sister.

Edward V and his younger brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, are known as the “Princes in the Tower“. They disappeared after being sent to heavily guarded royal lodgings in the Tower of London. Responsibility for their disappearance and presumed deaths is widely attributed to Richard III, who sent them to the Tower, but the lack of conclusive evidence and conflicting contemporary accounts allow for other possibilities.


Richard III of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England#/media/File:Richard_III_earliest_surviving_portrait.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 26 June 1483 until his death in 1485. He was the last king of the Plantagenet dynasty and its cadet branch the House of York. His defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.

Richard was created Duke of Gloucester in 1461 after the accession of his brother Edward IV. In 1472, he married Anne Neville, daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and widow of Edward of Westminster, son of Henry VI. He governed northern England during Edward’s reign, and played a role in the invasion of Scotland in 1482. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward’s eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Before arrangements were complete for Edward V’s coronation, scheduled for 22 June 1483, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid. Now officially illegitimate, Edward and his siblings were barred from inheriting the throne. On 25 June, an assembly of lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect, and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king. He was crowned on 6 July 1483. Edward and his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, called the “Princes in the Tower“, disappeared from the Tower of London around August 1483.

There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard’s former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Then, in August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, landed in Wales with a contingent of French troops, and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henry’s forces defeated Richard’s army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth. Richard was slain, making him the last English king to die in battle. Henry Tudor then ascended the throne as Henry VII.

Richard’s corpse was taken to the nearby town of Leicester and buried without ceremony. His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, and his remains were wrongly thought to have been thrown into the River Soar. In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by Philippa Langley with the assistance of the Richard III Society on the site previously occupied by Grey Friars Priory. The University of Leicester identified the human skeleton found at the site as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, identification of trauma sustained at Bosworth and comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of his sister Anne. He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral in 2015.


Henry VII of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England#/media/File:Enrique_VII_de_Inglaterra,_por_un_artista_an%C3%B3nimo.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England

Henry VII (28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death in 1509. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor.[a]

Henry’s mother, Margaret Beaufort, was a descendant of John of Gaunt, founder of the House of Lancaster and son of King Edward III. Henry’s father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, a half-brother of Henry VI of England, and a member of the Welsh Tudors of Penmynydd, died three months before his son Henry was born. During Henry’s early years, he supported his uncle Henry VI and the Lancastrian cause in fighting the civil wars against Edward IV, a member of the Yorkist branch of the House of Plantagenet. After Edward retook the throne in 1471, Henry Tudor spent 14 years in exile in Brittany. He attained the throne when his forces, supported by FranceScotland and Wales, defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle, defending it two years later at the Battle of Stoke Field to decisively end the Wars of the Roses (1455–1487). Vindicating the Lancastrian cause, he cemented his claim by marrying the Yorkist heiress, Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV.

Henry restored power and stability to the English monarchy following the civil war. He is credited with many administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives. His supportive policy toward England’s wool industry and his standoff with the Low Countries had long-lasting benefits to the English economy. He paid very close attention to detail, and instead of spending lavishly he concentrated on raising new revenues. He stabilised the government’s finances by introducing several new taxes. After his death, a commission found widespread abuses in the tax collection process. Henry reigned for nearly 24 years and was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.


Henry VIII


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII#/media/File:After_Hans_Holbein_the_Younger_-_Portrait_of_Henry_VIII_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is known for his six marriages and his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disagreement with Pope Clement VII about such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated by the pope.

Henry brought radical changes to the Constitution of England, expanding royal power and ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings in opposition to papal supremacy. He frequently used charges of treason and heresy to quell dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial using bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas WolseyThomas MoreThomas Cromwell, and Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in his administration.

Henry was an extravagant spender, using proceeds from the dissolution of the monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament. He converted money that was formerly paid to Rome into royal revenue. Despite the money from these sources, he was often on the verge of financial ruin due to personal extravagance and costly and largely unproductive wars, particularly with King Francis I of FranceHoly Roman Emperor Charles VKing James V of Scotland, and the Scottish regency under the Earl of Arran and Mary of Guise. He expanded the Royal Navy, oversaw the annexation of Wales to England with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, and was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542.

Henry’s contemporaries considered him an attractive, educated, and accomplished king. He has been described as “one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne” and his reign described as the “most important” in English history.[3][4] He was an author and composer. As he aged, he became severely overweight and his health suffered. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, paranoid, and tyrannical monarch.[5] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.


Edward VI


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VI#/media/File:Circle_of_William_Scrots_Edward_VI_of_England.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VI

Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death in 1553. He was crowned on 20 February 1547 at the age of nine.[a] The only surviving son of Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour, Edward was the first English monarch to be raised as a Protestant.[2] During his reign, the realm was governed by a regency council because Edward never reached maturity. The council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset (1547–1549), and then by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (1550–1553).

Edward’s reign was marked by many economic problems and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace. The transformation of the Church of England into a recognisably Protestant body also occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. His father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the English Church and Rome, but continued to uphold most Catholic doctrine and ceremony. It was during Edward’s reign that Protestantism was established for the first time in England with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the Mass, and the imposition of compulsory English in church services.

In 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill. When his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his council drew up a “Devise for the Succession” to prevent the country’s return to Catholicism. Edward named his Protestant first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir, excluding his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. This decision was disputed following Edward’s death, and Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen. Mary, a Catholic, reversed Edward’s Protestant reforms during her reign, but Elizabeth restored them in 1559.


Edward VI, Successor, Jane (disputed) or Mary I, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Jane_Grey, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_I_of_England, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VI

Lady Jane Grey

6804,Lady Jane Dudley (n饠Grey),by Unknown artist

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Jane_Grey#/media/File:Streathamladyjayne.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Jane_Grey

Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537 – 12 February 1554), also known as Lady Jane Dudley after her marriage[3] and as the “Nine Days’ Queen“,[6] was an English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 to 19 July 1553.

Jane was the great-granddaughter of King Henry VII through his daughter, Mary Tudor, and was therefore a great-niece of King Henry VIII, and a cousin to Edward VIMary I and Elizabeth I. Jane was in line to the throne after her cousins under the will of Henry VIII. She had a humanist education; and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day.[7] In May 1553, she was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward VI’s chief minister John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. In June 1553, the dying Edward VI wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successors to the Crown, in part because his half-sister Mary was Catholic, while Jane was a committed Protestant and would support the reformed Church of England, whose foundation Edward laid. The will removed his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, from the line of succession on account of their illegitimacy, subverting their lawful claims under the Third Succession Act. Through Northumberland, Edward’s letters patent in favour of Jane was signed by the entire privy council, bishops, and other notables.

After Edward’s death, Jane was proclaimed queen on 10 July 1553, and awaited coronation in the Tower of London. Support for Mary grew rapidly and most of Jane’s supporters abandoned her. The Privy Council of England suddenly changed sides, and proclaimed Mary as queen on 19 July 1553, deposing Jane. Her primary supporter, her father-in-law, the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason, and executed less than a month later. Jane was held prisoner in the Tower, and in November 1553 was also convicted of treason, which carried a sentence of death.

Mary initially spared her life, but Jane soon became viewed as a threat to the Crown when her father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, became involved with Wyatt’s rebellion against Queen Mary’s intention to marry Philip of Spain. Jane and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554. At the time of her execution, Jane was either 16 or 17 years old.


Mary I of England


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_I_of_England#/media/File:Anthonis_Mor_001.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_I_of_England

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as “Bloody Mary” by her Protestant opponents, was Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 and Queen of Spain and the Habsburg dominions as the wife of King Philip II from January 1556 until her death in 1558. She is best known for her vigorous attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, King Henry VIII. Her attempt to restore to the Church the property confiscated in the previous two reigns was largely thwarted by Parliament, but during her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions.

Mary was the only surviving child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. She was declared illegitimate and barred from the line of succession following the annulment of her parents’ marriage in 1533, though she would later be restored via the Third Succession Act 1543. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became terminally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed, correctly, that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had taken place during his reign. Upon his death, leading politicians proclaimed Mary’s and Edward’s Protestant cousin, Lady Jane Grey, as queen instead. Mary speedily assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, who was eventually beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England. In July 1554, Mary married Prince Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556.

After Mary’s death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor, Elizabeth I.


“I kind of Knew You’d Set Us Up” Public.

Correct English, “I kind of Knew Earth Would Set Us Up” Public

Stalkers Knowing Worth Greater Than, Since,

When Two Bloodlines Meet Own It! Public, 11th June 04:03.

MI6 – When You Battle With Earth

MI6 – When You Battle With A PLANET.

Mi6 – I don’t want you to do this, it would spoil everything, you should know though.

Correct English, Mi6 – I don’t want you to do this, it would spoil everything, Earth should know though.

Is it Fraud though Ben? Maybe you need to do it. Am I meant to be in Neglect? Order of Succession was purposely ignored Royal Bloodline First Bloodline. Simple Crime.

Maybe something isn’t quite right, and MI6 Got It Wrong. For Once. The biggest Pedo Network, Choose to Believe Pedo, Choose to Believe a Pedo, Choose to Believe Pedo Psychiatry.

Maybe I have my time for once, instead of the public or pedo dominance.

Take your word for it.

Kill yourselves.