Guilt versus Oxygen, A Way Of Decease

Why Do We Desire For Guilt?

Some question a depression fix, survival techniques

Quite large, as we today compare ourselves with another

I was prepared for everything Except YOU (Sean Connery & Catherine Zeta-Jones) – Entrapment (1999)
https://as2.ftcdn.net/v2/jpg/03/99/66/51/1000_F_399665166_W1qH1YYmE3zwLAnOIFcklG5bMZaN74LU.jpg; https://stock.adobe.com/uk/images/human-skull-with-an-open-lower-jaw-on-a-black-isolated-background-the-concept-of-death-immortality-eternal-life-horror-acult-symbol-spooky-halloween-symbol-3d-render/399665166

Best Of Agent Scully | THE X-FILES

Mulder grabs Scullys necklace (1×03)

The End of WW2

WWII in HD: VICTORY IN EUROPE: VE Day Celebrated Across the Globe, 5/8/45 | History

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany,[h] officially known as the German Reich[i] and later the Greater German Reich,[j] is a term used to describe the German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party controlled the country, transforming it into a totalitarian dictatorship. The Third Reich,[k] meaning “Third Realm” or “Third Empire”, referred to the Nazi claim that Nazi Germany was the successor to the earlier Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and German Empire (1871–1918). The Third Reich, which the Nazis referred to as the Thousand-Year Reich,[l] ended in May 1945, after only 12 years, when the Allies defeated Germany and entered the capital, Berlinending World War II in Europe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany

Nazi Germany was the successor to the earlier Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and German Empire (1871–1918).

successor

a person or thing that succeeds another.

https://www.google.com

successor

someone or something that comes after another person or thing:

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/successor


Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire,[e] also known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512, was a polity in Central and Western Europe, usually headed by the Holy Roman Emperor.[19] It developed in the Early Middle Ages and lasted for almost 1,000 years until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.[20]

On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned Frankish king Charlemagne as Roman emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe more than three centuries after the fall of the ancient Western Roman Empire in 476.[21] The title lapsed in 924, but was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor by Pope John XII, fashioning himself as Charlemagne’s and the Carolingian Empire‘s successor,[22] and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.[23][24][f] From 962 until the twelfth century, the empire was one of the most powerful monarchies in Europe.[25] The functioning of government depended on the harmonious cooperation between emperor and vassals;[26] this harmony was disturbed during the Salian period.[27] The empire reached the apex of territorial expansion and power under the House of Hohenstaufen in the mid-thirteenth century, but overextension of its power led to a partial collapse.[28][29]

Scholars generally describe an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, and a gradual development of the imperial role.[30][31] While the office of emperor had been reestablished, the exact term for his realm as the “Holy Roman Empire” was not used until the 13th century,[32] although the emperor’s theoretical legitimacy from the beginning rested on the concept of translatio imperii, that he held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome.[30] Nevertheless, in the Holy Roman Empire, the imperial office was traditionally elective by the mostly German prince-electors. In theory and diplomacy, the emperors were considered the first among equals of all Europe’s Catholic monarchs.[33]

Name and general perception

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire#/media/File:Quaternion_Eagle_by_Jost_de_Negker.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire

Since Charlemagne, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.[38] The term sacrum (“holy”, in the sense of “consecrated”) in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa (“Holy Empire”): the term was added to reflect Frederick’s ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy.[39] The form “Holy Roman Empire” is attested from 1254 onward.[40]

The exact term “Holy Roman Empire” was not used until the 13th century, before which the empire was referred to variously as universum regnum (“the whole kingdom”, as opposed to the regional kingdoms), imperium christianum (“Christian empire”), or Romanum imperium (“Roman empire”),[32] but the Emperor’s legitimacy always rested on the concept of translatio imperii,[g] that he held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome.[30]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire


Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire

The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman EmperorFrancis II of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, abdicated his title and released all Imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. Since the Middle Ages, the Holy Roman Empire had been recognized by Western Europeans as the legitimate continuation of the ancient Roman Empire due to its emperors having been proclaimed as Roman emperors by the papacy. Through this Roman legacy, the Holy Roman Emperors claimed to be universal monarchs whose jurisdiction extended beyond their empire’s formal borders to all of Christian Europe and beyond. The decline of the Holy Roman Empire was a long and drawn-out process lasting centuries. The formation of the first modern sovereign territorial states in the 16th and 17th centuries, which brought with it the idea that jurisdiction corresponded to actual territory governed, threatened the universal nature of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Holy Roman Empire by the time of the 18th century was widely regarded by contemporaries, both inside and outside the empire, as a highly “irregular” monarchy and “sick”, having an “unusual” form of government. The empire lacked both a central standing army and a central treasury and its monarchs, formally elective rather than hereditary, could not exercise effective central control. Even then, most contemporaries believed that the empire could be revived and modernized. The Holy Roman Empire finally began its true terminal decline during and after its involvement in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Although the empire defended itself quite well initially, war with France and Napoleon proved catastrophic. In 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself as the Emperor of the French, which Francis II responded to by proclaiming himself the Emperor of Austria, in addition to already being the Holy Roman Emperor, an attempt at maintaining parity between France and Austria while also illustrating that the Holy Roman title outranked them both. Austria’s defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz in December 1805 and the secession of a large number of Francis II’s German vassals in July 1806 to form the Confederation of the Rhine, a French satellite state, effectively meant the end of the Holy Roman Empire. The abdication in August 1806, combined with a dissolution of the entire Imperial hierarchy and its institutions, was seen as necessary to prevent the possibility of Napoleon proclaiming himself Holy Roman Emperor, something which would have reduced Francis II to Napoleon’s vassal.

Reactions to the empire’s dissolution ranged from indifference to despair. The populace of Vienna, capital of the Habsburg monarchy, were horrified at the loss of the empire. Many of Francis II’s former subjects questioned the legality of his actions; though his abdication was agreed to be perfectly legal, the dissolution of the empire and the release of all its vassals were seen as beyond the emperor’s authority. As such, many of the empire’s princes and subjects refused to accept that the empire was gone, with some commoners going so far as to believe that news of its dissolution was a plot by their local authorities. In Germany, the dissolution was widely compared to the ancient and semi-legendary Fall of Troy and some associated the end of what they perceived to be the Roman Empire with the end times and the apocalypse.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissolution_of_the_Holy_Roman_Empire


De facto

De facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ, di -, də -/ day FAK-toh, dee -⁠, də -⁠,[1] Latin: [deː ˈfaktoː] ; lit. ’in fact’) describes practices that exist in reality, regardless of whether they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms.[2][3] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure (“by law”).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_facto


De jure

In law and governmentde jure (/deɪ ˈdʒʊəri, di -, – ˈjʊər-/, Latin: [deː ˈjuːre]; lit. ’by law’) describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality.[1] In contrast, de facto (‘in fact’) describes situations that exist in reality, even if not formally recognized.[2]

Examples

Between 1805 and 1914, the ruling dynasty of Egypt were subject to the rulers of the Ottoman Empire, but acted as de facto independent rulers who maintained a polite fiction of Ottoman suzerainty. However, starting from around 1882, the rulers had only de jure rule over Egypt, as it had by then become a British puppet state.[3] Thus, by Ottoman law, Egypt was de jure a province of the Ottoman Empire, but de facto was part of the British Empire.

In U.S. law, particularly after Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the difference between de facto segregation (segregation that existed because of the voluntary associations and neighborhoods) and de jure segregation (segregation that existed because of local laws that mandated the segregation) became important distinctions for court-mandated remedial purposes.[4]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_jure


Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire,[j] historically and colloquially known as the Turkish Empire,[22][23] was an imperial realm[k] that spanned much of Southeast EuropeWest Asia, and North Africa from the 14th to early 20th centuries; it also controlled parts of southeastern Central Europe, between the early 16th and early 18th centuries.[24][25][26]

The empire emerged from a beylik, or principality, founded in northwestern Anatolia in 1299 by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. His successors conquered much of Anatolia and expanded into the Balkans by the mid 14th century, transforming their petty kingdom into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, which marked the Ottomans’ emergence as a major regional power. Under Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566), the empire reached the peak of its power, prosperity, and political development. By the start of the 17th century, the Ottomans presided over 32 provinces and numerous vassal states, which over time were either absorbed into the Empire or granted various degrees of autonomy.[l] With its capital at Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and control over a significant portion of the Mediterranean Basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Middle East and Europe for six centuries.

While, the Ottoman Empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline after the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, modern academic consensus posits that the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military into much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind those of its chief European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, culminating in the loss of both territory and global prestige. This prompted a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat; over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized internally, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.

Beginning in the late 19th century, various Ottoman intellectuals sought to further liberalize society and politics along European lines, culminating in the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 led by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which established the Second Constitutional Era and introduced competitive multi-party elections under a constitutional monarchy. However, following the disastrous Balkan Wars, the CUP became increasingly radicalized and nationalistic, leading a coup d’état in 1913 that established a one-party regime. The CUP allied the empire with Germany, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation that had contributed to its recent territorial losses; it thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it struggled with internal dissent, especially the Arab Revolt. During this period, the Ottoman government engaged in genocide against ArmeniansAssyrians, and Greeks.

In the aftermath of World War I, the victorious Allied Powers occupied and partitioned the Ottoman Empire, which lost its southern territories to the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk against the occupying Allies, led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy in 1922, formally ending the Ottoman Empire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire


“This Screams Bipolar.”


Charlemagne

Charlemagne[b] (/ˈʃɑːrləmeɪn, ˌʃɑːrləˈmeɪn/ SHAR-lə-mayn, -⁠MAYN; 2 April 748[a] – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Emperor of what is now known as the Carolingian Empire from 800, holding all these titles until his death in 814. Charlemagne succeeded in uniting the majority of Western and Central Europe, and was the first recognized emperor to rule in the west after the fall of the Western Roman Empire approximately three centuries earlier. Charlemagne’s rule saw a program of political and social changes that had a lasting impact on Europe in the Middle Ages.

A member of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty, Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. With his brother Carloman I, he became king of the Franks in 768 following Pepin’s death, and became sole ruler in 771. As king, he continued his father’s policy to provide protection for the papacy and became its chief defender, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy in 774. Charlemagne’s reign saw a period of expansion that led to the conquests of BavariaSaxony, and northern Spain, as well as other campaigns that led Charlemagne to extend his rule over a vast area of Europe. He spread Christianity to his new conquests, often by force, as seen at the Massacre of Verden, perpetrated against the Saxons.

In 800, Charlemagne was crowned as emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III. While historians debate about the exact significance of the coronation, the title represented the height of the prestige and authority he had achieved. Charlemagne’s position as the first emperor in the West in over 300 years brought him into conflict with the contemporary Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople. Through his assumption of the imperial title, he is considered the forerunner of the line of Holy Roman Emperors that lasted into the nineteenth century. As king and emperor, Charlemagne engaged in a number of reforms in administration, law, education, military organization, and religion which shaped Europe for centuries. The stability of his reign saw the beginning of a period of significant cultural activity known as the Carolingian Renaissance.

Charlemagne died in 814, and was laid to rest in the Aachen Cathedral, within his imperial capital city Aachen. He was succeeded by his only surviving son Louis the Pious. After Louis, the Frankish kingdom would be divided, eventually coalescing into West and East Francia, which would respectively become France and the Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne’s profound impact on the Middle Ages, and the influence on the vast territory he ruled has led him to be called the “Father of Europe”. He is seen as a founding figure by multiple European states, and a number of historical royal houses of Europe trace their lineage back to him. Charlemagne has been the subject of artworks, monuments and literature, during and after the medieval period, and has received veneration in the Catholic Church.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne#/media/File:Karel_Leo.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne#/media/File:Kaulbach_Die_Kaiserkr%C3%B6nung_Karls_des_Gro%C3%9Fen.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne

Father, Pepin the Short, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne


Pepin the Short

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short#/media/File:PippinImperialChronicleCorpusChristiCollegeMS373Fol14.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

Pepin[a] the Short (LatinPipinusFrenchPépin le Bref; c. 714 – 24 September 768), was King of the Franks from 751 until his death in 768. He was the first Carolingian to become king.[2]

Predecessor, Charles Martel, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Martel

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short


Charles Martel

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Martel#/media/File:Charles_Martel_01.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Martel

Successor, Carloman, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carloman_(mayor_of_the_palace)

Successor, Pepin the Younger, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Martel


Carloman (mayor of the palace)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carloman_(mayor_of_the_palace)#/media/File:Charles_Martel_divise_le_royaume_entre_P%C3%A9pin_et_Carloman.jpg; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carloman_(mayor_of_the_palace)

Carloman (between 706 and 716[a] – 17 August[b] 754) was the eldest son of Charles Martelmayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud of Treves. On Charles’s death (741), Carloman and his brother Pepin the Short succeeded to their father’s legal positions…

Children, (possibly) Rotrude, Countess of Paris

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carloman_(mayor_of_the_palace)

  1. Evidence proves that when Royal Order of Succession is NOT followed correctly, bipolar takes over therefore guilt.